Squid courtship takes place in open water and involves the male choosing a female, the female reacting, and the male to transfer the spermatophores to the female. (Spermatophores are male reproductive structures that package sperm cells to aid their transmission to females during mating and are found in a wide variety of invertebrates).
In many cases, the male can change color to identify himself to the female and to drive away potential competitors. In some species, complex changes in body pattern take place in both agnostic and courtship behavior.
The couple assume a head-to-head position and “jaw locking” can occur.
The male’s heterodactyl (a special arm) is used to transfer the spermatophores and deposit them in the female’s mantle cavity.
The sperm can be used immediately or stored. When the eggs pass through the fallopian tubes, they are wrapped in a gelatinous sheath before they enter the mantle cavity, where they are fertilized.
In Loligo, additional coatings are added to the Squid Eggs through the low-dimensional glands in the walls of the mantle cavity and the squid eggs exit through a funnel formed by the arms.
The female attaches them to the ground in threads or groups, whereby the outer layers of the squid eggs swell and harden after contact with seawater.